Canadian innovation system

Canada is a federation of ten provinces and three territories and the Canadian constitution specifies that provincial governments have exclusive responsibility for all levels of education, natural resources, and health. The federal government has responsibility for defence, foreign policy, communications, and citizenship.

In Canada, federal and provincial governments are jointly responsible for the framework conditions that support science, technology and innovation such as fiscal and tax systems, intellectual property rights, labour mobility,  policies shaping competition, and foreign investment and trade. At the federal level, the Minister of Industry and the Minister of State for Science and Technology are regarded as having the lead responsibility for innovation in Canada, while the Minister of International Trade has the responsibility to support international innovation, science and technology.

Provinces are responsible for universities, colleges and hospitals within their jurisdiction and provide most of the basic operating costs, including staff salaries, that support Research and Development (R&D) carried out within these institutions.